The Pipes of Pan
Clarence H White
Clarence H White
Clarence Hudson White (April 8, 1871 – July 7, 1925) was an American photographer and a founding member of the Photo-Secession movement. During his lifetime he was widely recognized as a master of the art form for his consummate sentimental, pictorial portraits and for his excellence as a teacher of photography. Toward the end of his career he founded the Clarence H. White School of Photography, which produced many of the best-known photographers of the Twentieth century including Margaret Bourke-White, Ralph Steiner, Dorothea Lange, and Paul Outerbridge. wiki
Gustave Léonard de Jonghe
(b Kortrijk, Belgium, 1829; d Antwerp, Belgium, 1893) Belgian painter. Jongh was painter and a watercolorist of figures and genera scenes. He started his artistic training with his father, Jean-Baptist de Jonghe. After his parents died, the young Jongh was granted a small pension by the Corporation of Curtrai to aid him in his study of paintings. He studied under François-Jean Navez at the Academy of Brussels. Jongh’s painting style was strongly influenced by his friend, and a fellow Belgian painter, Louis Gallait, who also advised Jongh on many of his career decisions. Although Jongh started his career painting historical and sacred subject matter, he is famous for his genre paintings with bourgeois themes and rich materials. In 1855, he became in the direct successor of the renowned Belgian painter, Alfred Stevens, in Paris. His painting, “The Birthday Wishes” was exhibited at the Royal Academy of London in 1875. artfact
Max Kurzweil: “Lady in a Yellow Dress,” 1899.
Buddha, probably Vairochana (Piluzhena), Liao dynasty (907–1125), early 11th century
H. 8 1/2 in. (21.5 cm)
The distinctive gesture of the right fist enclosing the index finger of the left hand identifies this figure seated in a meditative pose on a lush tiered pedestal as Vairochana, a celestial Buddha important in Asia from the eighth to the twelfth century. Buddha Vairochana uses this gesture, known as the wisdom fist, when he is in the center of a mandala or cosmic diagram, and this sculpture may once have been part of such a larger assemblage. The small seated Buddha in the extraordinary crown is unusual; Vairochana is more commonly shown with representations of the heads of the five Buddha families in his headdress.
Buddha Vairochana wears an undergarment, a long surplice, and a necklace. The detail and precision in the rendering of the clothing and jewelry place this figure among the finest sculptures produced in China during the rule of the Qidan Liao dynasty (907–1125), a Mongol people from Manchuria who controlled northern China from the tenth to the twelfth century. It can be grouped with a handful of elegantly cast pieces produced in the first decades of the eleventh century, during the reign of Shengzong (982–1031). metmuseum
Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara of the Lion’s Roar or Simhanada Avalokiteshvara (Shi hou Guanyin Pusa), Ming dynasty (1368–1644), late 15th–16th century
Wood (poplar) with pigments, single woodblock construction
H. 42 1/8 in. (107 cm)
H. 42 1/8 in. (107 cm)
Two bodhisattvas are identified by the fact that they, at times, ride lions: one is Manjushri, the bodhisattva of wisdom, who is frequently shown on this mount; the other is Avalokiteshvara, who sits a lion in the Simhanada form, or Avalokiteshvara of the Lion’s Roar. In both, the roar symbolizes the intensity of the moment of enlightenment. The lion’s recumbent pose and the position of the bodhisattva, who is riding sidewise, suggest that this sculpture can be identified as Avalokiteshvara, although the requisite seated Buddha in the headdress is missing. Moreover, the raised right and pendant lower leg are often found in representations of Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara, who takes the pose in the well-known Water Moon form, in China the most popular manifestation of this bodhisattva after the tenth century.
The earliest textural reference to this rare form of Avalokiteshvara is found in the Garland of Sadhanas, the great iconographic compendium assembled by the Indian monk Abhayakaragupta in the eleventh century. This form of the Bodhisattva of Compassion is thought to have had the ability to heal diseases. A few Indian examples showing this form of the bodhisattva are found from the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Moreover, an unusual Chinese iron sculpture showing Avalokiteshvara seated on a lion and dated 1112 is preserved in Japan, suggesting that the form was introduced to China with other later Esoteric practices around the twelfth century. It is interesting to note that in later Chinese traditions, various forms of the Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara or Guanyin are shown accompanied by or riding a lion or lionlike creature, suggesting that the form of Simhanada Avalokiteshvara had melded with popular Chinese manifestations such as the bodhisattva as the “bestower of sons.” metmuseum